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How The Waters Off Catalina Became A DDT Dumping Ground



Not far from Santa Catalina Island, in an ocean shared by divers and fishermen, kelp forests and whales, David Valentine decoded unusual signals underwater that gave him chills.

The UC Santa Barbara scientist was supposed to be studying methane seeps that day, but with a deep-sea robot on loan and a few hours to spare, now was the chance to confirm an environmental abuse that others in the past could not. He was chasing a hunch, and sure enough, initial sonar scans pinged back a pattern of dots that popped up on the map like a trail of breadcrumbs.

The robot made its way 3,000 feet down to the bottom, beaming bright lights and a camera as it slowly skimmed the seafloor. At this depth and darkness, the uncharted topography felt as eerie as driving through a vast desert at night.

“Holy crap. This is real,” Valentine said. “This stuff really is down there.

“It has been sitting here this whole time, right off our shore.”

Tales of this buried secret bubbling under the sea had haunted Valentine for years: a largely unknown chapter in the most infamous case of environmental destruction off the coast of Los Angeles — one lasting decades, costing tens of millions of dollars, frustrating generations of scientists. The fouling of the ocean was so reckless, some said, it seemed unimaginable.

As many as half a million of these barrels could still be underwater right now, according to interviews and a Times review of historical records, manifests and undigitized research. From 1947 to 1982, the nation’s largest manufacturer of DDT — a pesticide so powerful that it poisoned birds and fish — was based in Los Angeles.

An epic Superfund battle later exposed the company’s disposal of toxic waste through sewage pipes that poured into the ocean — but all the DDT that was barged out to sea drew comparatively little attention.

Shipping logs show that every month in the years after World War II, thousands of barrels of acid sludge laced with this synthetic chemical were boated out to a site near Catalina and dumped into the deep ocean — so vast that, according to common wisdom at the time, it would dilute even the most dangerous poisons.

Regulators reported in the 1980s that the men in charge of getting rid of the DDT waste sometimes took shortcuts and just dumped it closer to shore. And when the barrels were too buoyant to sink on their own, one report said, the crews simply punctured them.

The ocean buried the evidence for generations, but modern technology can take scientists to new depths. In 2011 and 2013, Valentine and his research team were able to identify about 60 barrels and collect a few samples during brief forays at the end of other research missions.

One sediment sample showed DDT concentrations 40 times greater than the highest contamination recorded at the Superfund site — a federally designated area of hazardous waste that officials had contained to shallower waters near Palos Verdes.

The world today wrestles with microplastics, bisphenol A (BPA), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and other toxics so unnatural they don’t seem to ever go away. But DDT — the all-but-indestructible compound dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, which first stunned and jolted the public into environmental action — persists as an unsolved and largely forgotten problem.

Signs warning of tainted fish to this day still cover local piers. Recent studies show our immune systems may be compromised. A new generation of women — exposed to DDT from their mothers, who were exposed by their mothers — grapples with the still-mysterious risks of breast cancer.

The contamination in sea lions and dolphins continues to stump scientists, and the near extinction of falcons and bald eagles shows how poisoning one corner of the world can ripple across the whole ecosystem.

Decades of bureaucracy and competing environmental issues have diverted the public’s attention. Valentine hoped digging up physical evidence from the seafloor would get more people to care, but calls and emails to numerous officials since his discovery have gone nowhere.

Rallying for the deep ocean is not easy, Valentine acknowledged, even though we rely on the health of these waters far more than we know: “The fact that there could be half a million barrels down there … we owe it to ourselves to figure out what happened, what’s actually down there and how much it’s all spreading.”

Once hailed as a major scientific achievement, DDT combated both malaria and typhus during World War II. It was so potent that a single application could protect a soldier for months. The U.S. Army’s chief of preventive medicine, Brig. Gen. James Simmons, famously praised the chemical as “the war’s greatest contribution to the future health of the world.”

Manufacturers rushed to supply the postwar demand — including Montrose Chemical Corp. of California, which opened its plant near Torrance in 1947. The chemical industry was celebrated at the time for boosting the nation into greater prosperity and preventing crop failures across the globe. The United States used as much as 80 million pounds of DDT in one year.

But there were two edges to this sword. A top U.S. Department of Agriculture scientist had urged the military not to allow DDT insecticides for commercial use without further research, worried about “the effect they may have on soils and on the whole balance of nature.”

Even Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller, who won a Nobel Prize in 1948 for discovering DDT as a pesticide, cautioned that he himself did not fully understand how the chemical interacted with the living world. Decades of painstaking study still lay ahead for biologists, he said.

Rachel Carson, a marine biologist, heeded these words in 1962 and ignited a movement against what she called “the reckless and irresponsible poisoning of the world that man shares with all other creatures.”

Her revolutionary book “Silent Spring” evoked the sudden silence of songbirds missing in the skies — alerting unknowing people to the dangers of long-term exposure, even in tiny doses, to a chemical that they could not physically avoid.

DDT is so stable it can take generations to break down. It doesn’t really dissolve in water but stores easily in fat. Compounding these problems is what scientists today call “biomagnification”: the toxin accumulating in the tissues of animals in greater and greater concentrations as it moves up the food chain.

Consider phytoplankton, the microscopic algae that are the base for almost all food webs in the ocean.

DDT-contaminated phytoplankton get eaten by zooplankton, which fish and whales consume by the thousands.

In 1969, shipments of jack mackerel from Southern California were recalled because DDT levels were as high as 10 parts per million, or ppm — double what the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered safe for consumption at that time.

Tumors started appearing on bottom-feeding fish like white croaker.

In that same year, California brown pelicans, which eat the fish, laid eggs on Anacapa Island with chemicals broken down from DDT averaging 1,200 ppm.

Scientists discovered that the chemicals led to eggshells so thin that the chicks would die. Bald eagles had also vanished from the Channel Islands, along with peregrine falcons and the brown pelicans.

Similarly, sea lions with more than 1,000 ppm in their blubber were giving birth to pups prematurely. Bottlenose dolphins had concentrations as high as 2,000 ppm.

Montrose executives aggressively defended DDT through the 1960s as the public reckoned with these alarming new concerns about food chains and poisoned ecosystems.

They said in letters and editorials that DDT played a vital role in society when properly used and was not a serious threat to human health. They accused environmentalists of scare tactics and misleading information and touted the company’s reputation of making the best DDT in the world — a technical grade sold to other firms that would then dilute it into specific insecticides.

The company was supplying governments from Brazil to India, they said, and even the World Health Organization. International malaria eradication programs turned to Montrose for supplies.

But after years of intense inquiries, government officials said they were convinced that the chemical posed unacceptable risks to the environment and potential harm to human health. In 1972, the U.S. finally banned the use of DDT.

Demand was still strong in other countries, however, so the chemical plant in Los Angeles kept churning out more. Montrose managed to operate for another 10 years before the factory, looming over Normandie Avenue near Del Amo Boulevard, finally went dark.

In the early 1980s, a young scientist at the California Regional Water Quality Control Board in Los Angeles heard whispers that Montrose once dumped barrels of toxic waste directly into the ocean. People at the time were hyper-focused on the contamination problems posed by poorly treated sewage, but Allan Chartrand was curious about the deep-sea dumping and started poking around.

He called Montrose, and to his surprise, the staff pulled out all their files. He and a team of regulatory scientists combed through volumes of shipping logs, which showed that more than 2,000 barrels of DDT-laced sludge were dumped each month. They did the math: Between 1947 and 1961, as much as 767 tons of DDT could have gone into the ocean.

“We found actual photos of the workers at 2 in the morning dumping — not only dumping barrels off of the barges in the middle of the Santa Monica Basin,” he said, “but before they would dump the barrels, they would take a big ax or hatchet to them, and cut them open on purpose so they would sink.”

On a recent morning, Chartrand rummaged through stacks of yellowing papers and reports detailing everything he had discovered so many decades ago. Now a seasoned eco-toxicologist in Seattle, he never understood why all this information wound up gathering dust — undigitized and largely forgotten.

He pulled out faded reports that his team had published from 1985 to 1989, summarizing what they had found at Montrose and in the water quality control board’s own records. “This makes my heart sing,” he said, as he reread conclusions that still resonate today.

Chartrand said he was astonished to learn this kind of activity was allowed. Federal ocean dumping laws dated back to 1886, but the rules were focused on clearing the way for ship navigation. It wasn’t until the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act, that environmental impacts were considered.

Dumping industrial chemicals near Catalina was an accepted practice for decades.

Landfills could hold only so much, and people were concerned about burning toxics into the air — but the Pacific Ocean seemed a good alternative. Explosives, oil refinery waste, trash and rotting meats all went into the ocean, along with beryllium, various acid sludges, even cyanide.

Dilution is the solution to pollution, the saying used to go, but at what cost? The ocean covers more than 70% of the planet, but it can absorb only so much. What we eat, what we breathe is ultimately dictated by what we do to the sea.

“It’s just sad, sad, sad,” Chartrand said. “When stuff’s being dumped offshore like that, it’s in the dead of night, nobody’s seeing it. It’s out of sight, out of mind.”

For years, a company called California Salvage docked at the Port of Los Angeles, loaded up Montrose’s DDT waste and hauled everything out to sea. Workers were instructed to dump in a designated spot, dubbed Dumpsite No. 1, that was about 10 nautical miles northwest of Catalina.

But compliance inspections were infrequent, and crews sometimes took shortcuts. Chartrand discovered notes from California Salvage indicating they had decided to dump elsewhere because Dumpsite No. 1 was in line of a naval weapons firing range.

The report concluded that these companies likely dumped in closer, much shallower waters.

“Our report caught them red-handed,” Chartrand said. “Here I was this young guy — newly married, just had my first kid, got my new job at the water quality control board — heard about this dumping, went down to Montrose … and it very quickly got so much bigger than me.”

In 1990, a few years after Chartrand compiled his reports, the Environmental Protection Agency teamed up with the state and launched a court battle against Montrose and a number of other companies under the Superfund law. Environmental groups expected the lawsuit — the largest in U.S. history alleging natural resource damages from chemical dumping — to be a landmark case in resolving coastal pollution issues.

Chartrand and dozens of others were pulled in to testify. Science was disputed in court, evidence debated, expertise challenged. In numerous depositions, former factory workers were grilled on how they operated.

Bernard Bratter, a Montrose plant superintendent, described how they would call California Salvage to dump its acid waste in bulk: “The trucks would come in, we’d load the trucks, they would then haul them down to the harbor where they had their barges, and the truck would unload into the barge, and when there was enough liquid in the barge, they’d haul the barge out to the specified area in the ocean and release the acid.”

Montrose officials, who had filed counterclaims, asked the court to exclude the evidence presented on ocean dumping — arguing that such dumping wasn’t relevant.

They said the government’s natural resources damage claim was based solely on the release of DDT through the sewer system to the Palos Verdes shelf, and that attorneys could not prove that Montrose’s disposal of DDT-contaminated waste into the deep ocean actually hurt various bird species.

They also questioned Chartrand’s calculations of how much DDT went into the ocean and made the point that there was nothing secret or illegal about the dumping at the time. The government, they said, allowed this to happen.

In an interoffice correspondence in 1985, Samuel Rotrosen, Montrose’s president at the time, wrote that “it is true that from 1947, when the plant started up, until sometime in the 1950s we disposed of our waste sulfuric acid at sea through California Salvage Company who barged it out to state-approved dumping areas.

“We stopped this disposal after we installed our acid-recovery plant, at which time we sold the acid to fertilizer makers,” he said. “Because our acid contained traces of DDT (50-250 ppm) … the fertilizer producers would no longer take it, and so we disposed of it at landfills.”

As the court battle waged on, a handful of curious scientists kept trying to solve the DDT questions at the bottom of the ocean.

Chartrand did not have a deep-sea robot, but he figured out a way to collect sediment samples and clumps of tar by dragging a large otter trawl net along the seafloor. He also took samples of rattails, kelp bass and other fish from different depths of the ocean.

He called Robert Risebrough, a legend among DDT scientists whose testimonies in the 1960s and early 1970s helped Congress understand why the chemical should be banned. Risebrough, a UC Santa Cruz research ecologist at the time, ran the samples and authored a sweeping study. He confirmed the existence of considerable concentrations of DDT chemicals in both the sediments and the “tar cakes” by the dumpsites.

It was unclear how much the DDT could move through the water at such depths, where there is little oxygen, he said, but the dumping was close enough to the Channel Islands that the upwelling of deeper water common in this area could stir up what enters the food chain.

And if the barrels were indeed punctured, he added, some of the sludge could have leaked out on its way down to the seafloor.

He had a strong suspicion that the disappearance of bald eagles from Catalina was connected to the dumping operations, but he didn’t have the data to confirm it. DDT contamination was also significantly higher in birds that fed on fish, compared with birds that ate mostly rodents and prey on land — another clue that the DDT from the ocean dumping was harming wildlife.

He called for more studies to connect the dots, but Chartrand had run out of funding. Chartrand held on to what he could — even the remaining samples that neither he nor Risebrough could bear to throw away. Some of that deep sea sediment has yet to be tested.

“They’re in a deep freeze now, but because it’s DDT, even though it’s been 30, 40 years, they’re still valid,” Chartrand said. “If we could get the funding, those are still worth running.”

M. Indira Venkatesan, a geochemist at UCLA who studied how chemicals moved through the sea, had taken one of these samples in the early 1990s and run her own analyses. She, too, concluded there must be a DDT source in the ocean much larger than just what had come out of the sewage closer to shore.

She collected additional sediment cores from the seafloor by a manual pulley that her technicians and graduate students spent hours pulling up. Her team distinguished the DDT “fingerprint” for Montrose’s ocean-dumped waste and discussed the upward and downward diffusion of DDT in the sediments.

“It gets resuspended and remobilized. That’s why you see it all over the basin,” she said. “I knew, I just knew, this DDT source was significant, just from the chemical analysis, but we couldn’t show the extent of the dumping, nor the number of barrels.”

Back in court, the arguments were focusing on the more tangible: the hundreds of tons of DDT and PCBs, another toxic chemical, that had been released two miles off the coast of Palos Verdes where the sewage emptied into the ocean. Many saw the need to make this public health problem — much closer to shore, with visible harm to humans and the ecosystem — a top priority.

The site — spread across more than 17 square miles — was declared a Superfund cleanup in 1996. About 200 feet deep, it was considered one of the most complicated hazard sites in the United States — at least three times deeper than similar Superfund sites in Boston and New York harbors.

By late 2000, the parties decided to settle. They negotiated a consent decree midway through trial — no sides admitting fault, with an agreement that more than $140 million would be paid by Montrose, several other companies that owned or operated a share of the plant, and local governments led by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts.

The settlement — one of the largest in the nation for an environmental damage claim — would pay for cleanup, habitat restoration and education programs for people at risk of eating contaminated fish.

“This Decree was negotiated ... in good faith at arm’s length to avoid the continuation of expensive and protracted litigation and is a fair and equitable settlement of claims which were vigorously contested,” according to the decree, which mentioned that the damage claim includes “any ocean dumpsites used for disposing of wastes from the Montrose Plant Property.”

Attorneys representing Montrose, when contacted by The Times, declined to comment on the new underwater data and noted that the ocean claims related to the DDT operation were resolved 20 years ago. Litigation continues to this day over other impacts from the former plant. In August, a $56.6-million settlement was finally reached over groundwater contamination.

Back at UCLA, on a recent morning in the geology building, Venkatesan thought ruefully back to those DDT years. KCBS had run a local news series on the barrels, and The Times followed the story for a brief period.

The information caught the attention of Assemblyman Tom Hayden (D-Santa Monica), the 1960s activist turned lawmaker who married Jane Fonda and was remembered as “the radical inside the system.” For a few years, he pushed for more information about the barrels and an action plan, but so many unchecked environmental problems demanded attention back then.

Even Venkatesan got pulled away. As public concerns shifted from water to air pollution, her research focus changed to aerosols.

She had tried for a while longer to get the word out — giving public lectures in Santa Monica bookstores and telling whoever would listen that the deep ocean also needed healing.

“I didn’t know what to do with this data; I felt bad,” she said. “As scientists, we thought we could leave it to the politicians and the government to do their job…. But if the government is not proactive, then people don’t care. If people don’t care, then the government doesn’t do anything.”

Now that she’s retired, her filing cabinets — filled with her work since she started in 1975 — have been moved into a basement at UCLA. She recently reviewed the data that the UC Santa Barbara researchers had uncovered with deep-sea robots, which validated Chartrand’s estimates, as well as her own.

She held out her hands and said she was trembling with excitement, knowing that people might care about this issue again.

“Disposing any waste, where you don’t see and forget about it, does not solve the problem,” she said. “The problem eventually comes back to haunt us.”

One afternoon in Santa Barbara, hunched over a computer humming with data, Valentine and Veronika Kivenson, a PhD student in marine science, scrolled through the eerie images they had gathered underwater.

They leaned in to examine an icicle-like anomaly growing off one of the barrels — a “toxicle,” they called it — and wondered about the gas that bubbled out when the robot snapped one off. To have gas supersaturated in and around these barrels so deep underwater, where the pressure was 90 times greater than above ground, was unsettling. They couldn’t help but feel like they were poking at a giant Coke can ready to explode.

One thing was clear, Kivenson said: This stuff is spreading. She had tried to collect sediment many meters from the barrels as a baseline to compare the samples collected right next to the source. But the baseline turned out to also have similarly high concentrations of DDT — most of them higher than the permissible threshold established by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

“These barrels do seem to be leaking over time,” she said. “This toxic waste is just kind of bubbling down there, seeping, oozing, I don’t know what word I want to use. ... It’s not a contained environment.”

So much of this data, collected in 2011 and then again in 2013, came down to timing and good luck: The underwater robots had been on loan for a different project, but that research cruise was ahead of schedule, so they had a window of extra time to explore.

A scientist involved in the discovery of the Titanic happened to be on board, so he helped them program the robots on where to go and how to search for the barrels. A marine geochemistry lab at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution ran the samples, and Kivenson, whose graduate fellowship and tuition were the only funding for this research, analyzed them for her PhD.

She tracked down the patent for the DDT acid waste that supposedly went into the barrels. She combed through EBay for out-of-print research books on ocean dumping and flipped through rolls of microfilm in the archive rooms of court buildings and government agencies.

She validated Venkatesan’s conclusion that the DDT near the barrels did not have the same characteristics as the Superfund site — ruling out the possibility that this was just DDT from Palos Verdes that somehow traveled farther into the ocean and settled onto the deep seafloor. One key difference was that the barrel samples contained no PCBs, which are abundant in the contamination near the sewage outfall.

Each barrel seemed to contain acid waste with about 0.5% to 2% technical-grade DDT — which, at half a million barrels, would amount to a total of 384 to 1,535 tons of DDT on the seafloor. The distribution was patchy; one hot spot had a concentration of DDT that was 40 times higher than the highest level of surface sediment contamination recorded at the Superfund site.

All told, she concluded that the total amount of DDT from the dumping seemed comparable to the estimated 870 to 1,450 tons that had been released through the sewer.

But in the end, these are still extrapolations — we don’t know how much is actually down there, said Kivenson, who published these findings last year in the journal Environmental Science & Technology and is now a postdoctoral fellow at Oregon State University. Logical next steps would be to somehow map and identify just how many barrels there are, determine any hot spots, and study how much the chemical is leaking and spreading and accumulating.

Valentine tried calling those with the power to do something about these barrels: the EPA, which has been in charge of cleaning up the Superfund site. But the EPA, it turns out, hasn’t even figured out what to do with the DDT problem that got all the attention and millions of settlement dollars. After more than 20 years of meetings and high-level studies, the site off the Palos Verdes shore has become its own controversial saga.

A pilot experiment more than a decade ago to bury the DDT under a thick cap of clean sand showed mixed results. Then sampling in 2009 suggested that most of the DDT had mysteriously vanished — prompting a burst of headlines and more internal paralysis. The longtime project manager unexpectedly retired, and many of the scientists who had dedicated decades of their careers to the chemical have also either retired or moved on.

Many, when reached, said they had not been involved with the site for a number of years.

“I feel like something’s happened at the site; it just sort of died. It’s been very weird,” said Robert Eganhouse, a research chemist at the U.S. Geological Survey who had been studying the Superfund site and the breakdown rates of DDT since the 1970s.

His last meaningful exchange with the EPA was in late 2016, when he submitted an immense amount of data and a final synthesis report for the site — a research endeavor that took more than eight years and cost millions of dollars. To this day, Eganhouse, who recently retired, is not quite sure what the EPA did with this information.

Judy Huang, the Superfund’s project manager for the past decade, when reached by The Times, directed questions to regional headquarters.

In an email, an EPA spokeswoman said the agency had suspended capping efforts and collected new data that showed twice as much DDT as the 2009 results. The EPA is now reassessing its approach: “We are updating our evaluation of the mechanisms of how the DDTs and PCBs in the sediment impact human health and the environment in this complex system.”

In the meantime, projects to restore local kelp forests, wetlands, seabirds and underwater habitats have been supported over the years with the settlement money, as well as education outreach that helped prevent anglers and vulnerable communities from eating poisoned fish.

Fish remain contaminated, but the concentrations seem to be slowly going down, according to findings from the EPA’s most recent five-year review of the site, released last fall. The bald eagles and peregrine falcons are coming back after years of human assistance, and nature seems to be healing itself over time.

After all these years of costly stops and stalls, some think a so-called monitored natural recovery approach might just be the best solution. The EPA plans to start a new feasibility study that aims to lead to a final cleanup strategy. That study is not expected to be published for another four years.

Mark Gold, who had championed the DDT problem as a marine scientist since the 1990s, could barely find the words to describe how he felt about the attempted cleanup of the Palos Verdes shelf.

“To have the EPA say, 25 years later, that maybe the best thing to do is to just let nature take its course is, frankly, nothing short of nauseating,” he said.

When asked about the barrels, he was so shocked he had to pause and grab a calculator to process the amount of DDT that could be in the deep ocean. At an absolute minimum, he said, there needs to be further investigation into how much is actually down there and how much this dumping has harmed the ecosystem.

Gold, who is now Gov. Gavin Newsom’s deputy secretary for coast and ocean policy, said he had heard stories of illegal dumping back when he was helping state and federal officials build the case against Montrose. But there was no firsthand evidence in the 1990s, he said, nor a sense of whether it was five barrels, 10 or 20.

“Nobody in their worst nightmares,” he said, “ever thought there would be half a million barrels of DDT waste dumped into the ocean off of L.A. County’s coast.”

For scientists today, DDT poses a new generation of complications. Dilution, it seems, just means the problem re-accumulates elsewhere. In the environmental health laboratory at San Diego State‘s School of Public Health, Eunha Hoh recently discovered the chemical had wound its way into dolphins in unexpected ways.

Marine mammals, like humans, nurse their young and live long lives. Slow to evolve, their long-term health is a window into the lasting impacts of chronic exposure and accumulation — and how these chemicals get passed onto babies. As some of the largest predators of the sea, they’re also an important indicator of the ocean’s overall health.

So when Hoh sampled the blubber of eight adult dolphins that had lived deeper off the coast of Southern California, she was surprised to find significant amounts of 45 DDT-related compounds. Every dolphin she tested had washed up dead — and had accumulated much more of these chemicals than dolphins tested in Brazil and elsewhere around the world.

“DDT contamination — is it really going down in Southern California? Can we really say that, or are we missing something,” said Hoh, who also serves on the California Ocean Protection Council’s science advisory team. “Sure it was banned decades ago, it might be manageable globally, but Southern California? We’re different. Our ocean is so much more polluted with DDT. We cannot just say, ‘That’s done; we can move on to other things.’”

Hoh’s expertise is in discovering new chemicals, but she remains mystified by how DDT keeps reappearing in new and unexpected ways. Where, she often wonders, is all this DDT coming from?

When she first heard about the barrels scattered across the seafloor, it was as if someone finally handed her missing pieces to a puzzle that had never quite added up.

The questions came tumbling out. If that much more DDT is out there but forgotten, and no one knows to study it, she said, how will we ever understand the true legacy of this chemical?

Current monitoring shows that the local ecosystem, on the whole, is stable. But what’s unclear are these long-term unknowns, said Keith Maruya, who co-authored the dolphin study and retired last year as the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project’s head of chemistry.

“It’s not like something’s going off the cliff. But what we don’t know is whether these things are going to have a longer-term, more subtle effect — are some populations really, really slowly going to be declining?” he said. “We don’t know the answer. Moreover, we don’t really have the tools yet to answer that question fully.”

He jolted up in his chair when the discovery of the barrels came up in a recent conversation.

“Wow. Wait, how many did they find? I need to write this down.”

He jotted a few numbers, then silently compared this with the known quantity of DDT dumped at the Superfund site.

“If nobody accounted for this second source … if you’ve got twice the amount,” he said, thinking aloud. “It’s such a staggering number, but what does this mean? … The bottom line is always going to be: So what? We have a chemical out there, so what?”

At the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, in a developmental biology and environmental toxicology lab overlooking the sea, Amro Hamdoun has been pondering this question for much of his life.

He’s found through molecular studies that “persistent organic pollutants,” like flame retardants and DDT, can block a key protein from eliminating toxins from the human body — a clue, perhaps, into why they bioaccumulate. Even in small amounts, these contaminants could interfere with the human body’s natural ability to defend itself.

Hamdoun teaches “Silent Spring” and DDT to his students as an example of how the world used to be — but can’t help but wonder how much the jobs and science of the future will be dealing with these messes of the past.

“There’s a broader problem of thinking of the ocean as this unlimited garbage dump that’s going to take up our CO₂, take up our mercury, deal with the plastic that we don’t throw away properly, be a dumping ground for pesticides, deal with whatever is in runoff — and that our health is going to be separable from that,” he said. “But what we’re learning more and more is that our health and the ocean’s health are pretty inseparable.”

At what point, he asked, does it become our prerogative, as people who live in a shared society, to decide what it is that we want to put in our environment — and our bodies?

He leaned forward in his chair, hands clasped, head bowed, like Valentine and Chartrand and so many who came before.

“These chemicals are still out there, and we haven’t figured out what to do,” he said. “They are an issue, and we still don’t have a plan.”

About this story: Graphics and design for this story were developed by Sean Greene. Audience engagement by Mary Kate Metivier and Javier Panzar. Photo editing by Marc Martin.

Barrel video provided by David Valentine and ROV Jason. Terrain data for San Pedro Basin are from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The shape of the Palos Verdes shelf Superfund site was provided by the U.S. EPA and Los Angeles County Sanitation District.

Dodgers beat Rays in Game 5


The Dodgers and Tampa Bay Rays played Game 5 of a neutral-site World Series, the first in modern history, at Globe Life Field, a gleaming new ballpark 1,400 miles from Los Angeles at quarter capacity during a pandemic Sunday. It didn’t sound that way in the sixth inning of the Dodgers’ 4-2 win.

Clayton Kershaw recorded the inning’s first two outs with two pitches. He had seemingly discovered a rhythm after a choppy beginning. But Dodgers manager Dave Roberts emerged to remove the future Hall of Famer anyway. Kershaw tried to convince Roberts to change his mind. Even third baseman Justin Turner spoke up in support of his teammate. Roberts stayed resolute and took the ball.

The pro-Dodgers crowd of 11,437, most with their minds still on the previous night’s debacle and hunches triggered by years of heartbreak, let Roberts know what they thought. Kershaw walked off to applause after giving up two runs on five hits with six strikeouts in 5 2/3 innings. Roberts walked off to the first round of throaty boos he’s received in 2020.

Roberts didn’t bend to the pressure. The Dodgers had a plan that he presented to Kershaw before the inning: The next two hitters would be Kershaw’s final two hitters, no matter how many pitches it took. He wanted to put Dustin May in the game, despite the rookie’s recent struggles, in that spot. He wanted to pull Kershaw before it was too late.

“He held up his part of the deal and got the two hitters,” Roberts said. “He just grinded. He willed himself to that point and I will say it wasn’t his best stuff. But he found a way to get outs and I give him all the credit.”

May responded by striking out Manuel Margot with a 101-mph fastball. It proved to be the first of Roberts’ deft bullpen decisions. The Dodgers didn’t yield another run and pulled within a win from their first championship since 1988.

“We stuck with the plan,” Kershaw said. “Credit to Doc. D-May came into the game and threw the ball awesome.”

The Dodgers arrived at Globe Life Field having moved on from Saturday’s ninth-inning collapse. At least that’s what a few of them said on pregame videoconference. Roberts, whose stupefied reaction to the implosion was played on a loop for the next 20 hours, claimed to not have watched a replay of the sequence. Living it was clear enough. And he slept just fine — with help.

“Some medication,” Roberts said. “I slept like a baby.”

The combination of Mookie Betts and Corey Seager quickly cleansed the Dodgers’ palates. Betts led off the game with a 106-mph screamer for a double on the eighth pitch of his at-bat against right-hander Tyler Glasnow. Two pitches later, Seager, fresh off a four-hit effort in Game 4, smoked an RBI single to right field. Then Seager showcased another dimension of his game.

Seager took second and third base on two wild pitches — Glasnow threw three to set a World Series record for a game — that didn’t ricochet too far from Mike Zunino. Cody Bellinger followed with a groundball to the backhand of second baseman Brandon Lowe. Bellinger reached without a throw. Seager scored easily. The Dodgers led 2-0.

Joc Pederson padded the margin by smashing a 428-foot home run into the Rays’ bullpen beyond the wall in left-center field in the second inning.

“They don’t want that smoke!” Pederson told his teammates in the joyous dugout.

The Rays, it turned out, had some smoke in response. A two-run third inning began with Kevin Kiermaier’s infield single to Kershaw. Two batters later, Yandy Díaz cracked a line drive down the right-field line.

Then something strange happened: Betts, whose postseason defensive highlight reel is unmatched, made a mistake. He took an aggressive, straight route to the ball and it skipped off the artificial turf before he could stop it. Díaz sprinted for third base and reached because Betts’ off-line throw sailed over the cutoff man, forcing Turner off the bag. Díaz beat Turner in a race to the base for a triple.

Next, Randy Arozarena delivered an RBI single to cut the Dodgers’ lead to one and give the Rays runners on the corners with no outs. They failed to capitalize.

Joey Wendle popped out. Willy Adames struck out wildly swinging at a curveball. The third out was gifted. Margot took a lead off third base and evaluated the situation. He saw Turner not holding him. He knew Kershaw’s delivery was long. He had an opening with Kiermaier, a left-handed hitter, to the plate. So he dashed home as Kershaw lifted his arms above his head.

Kershaw calmly reacted to the straight steal when first baseman Max Muncy alerted him of the situation. He stepped off and tossed an accurate throw home to Austin Barnes, who applied the tag just before Margot touched the plate with a swim move to end the inning.

“He was yelling at me, ‘Step off, step off, step off,’” Kershaw said. “So instinctually I just kind of did it right there. That was a big out for us.”

Margot’s aggression, an inch or two from tying the score, stubbed the Rays’ momentum.

Kershaw retired the side in order in the fifth for his first clean inning. Then he secured two outs with two pitches in the sixth to coax Roberts from the dugout for his unpopular decision. Kershaw’s competitiveness took over. The plan was the plan — the Dodgers wanted him to face 21 to 24 hitters and he was through 21 — but he threw just two pitches. He and his teammates advocated for an audible. Roberts didn’t relent.

“I think all of us wanted him to stay in,” Muncy said of Kershaw.

May returned for a one-two-three seventh inning before Roberts replaced him with left-hander Victor González with one out after Ji-Man Choi, a left-handed hitter, was announced as a pinch-hitter. Rays manager Kevin Cash opted to pinch-hit Mike Brosseau, a right-handed hitter, for Choi.

“It’s worth it,” Roberts determined.

Brosseau walked, bringing up Arozarena, the Rays’ best player who earlier collected his 27th hit of the playoffs to set the record for the most in a single postseason. Arozarena lined out on the first pitch. Next, Lowe flied out to center field to quash the threat.

Roberts made his final bullpen move before the start of the ninth. Blake Treinen had pitched the previous two days, accumulating 30 pitches in the two outings. Roberts trusted him to record his first career postseason save.

Margot greeted Treinen with a leadoff single, but the right-hander recovered. He struck out Austin Meadows swinging through a 98-mph four-seam fastball. Wendle flied out. And, for the finale, he blew a 98-mph sinker by Adames.

In the end, after the protests and boos and heartache, the Dodgers are one win away.

Master Of Economics And Business



The Master of Economics and Business Education prepares you for a teaching activity at a career-oriented school or business high school. But it's also an ideal base if you want to work in a company, in the human resources sector.

The world of business and economics often overlap, with economic theories applicable to a wide variety of industries. A Master in Business and Economics provides students with the tools necessary to understand economic principles and apply them to various business endeavors.

The program teaches students about many economic theories, principles and concepts and how to apply analytical techniques to facilitate business decisions. Some of the courses that may be offered as part of the program include international financial management, industrial organization, public sector economics, and international trade theory. Through their studies, students gain an understanding of the internal and global developments taking place in the world today.

There are various options associated with the program. Students are able to work with professionals in the fields of business and economics and to enhance their leadership and analytical skills. The program also offers students the opportunity to build their own networks with professional contacts.

Getting a master's in business and economics takes approximately one to two years to complete. The cost of enrollment varies from school to school too, and students should contact their favorite college if they are unsure of the cost of enrollment.

While business and economics are such diverse fields, students who complete a program have a variety of professional opportunities at their disposal. Many people find jobs in government, business and education. Some of the most common careers for graduates include financial planner, analyst, security sales and insurance. If students want to pursue their education, they have the opportunity to obtain law degrees, finance, public policy, international relations and medicine.

There are many international universities offering degrees in business and economics, and online courses are also available. If you are ready to pursue your degree, look for your program below and contact the school admissions office of your choice directly by filling in the application form.

Study Economics and Business Education at one of the best business schools. You have different opportunities to study. In addition to gaining in-depth knowledge in business education and business administration, you will develop your social competencies and academic work skills through forms of team-oriented learning and work, as well as individually directed feedback.

Business Ideas On Time



Let’s talk business ideas. No matter how rewarding your full-time job may be, finding the best side business ideas and eventually becoming self-employed is even more meaningful than great pay and solid benefits.

Choosing the path of entrepreneurship and working on finding great business ideas, is without a doubt riskier than being content with holding a 9-5 job. It requires more sacrifice. However, once you’re reaping the lifestyle benefits of being your own boss and hustling your way into making significantly more money with your business ideas than you ever could at your day job, the hard work will have all been worth it. So, dive into the most relevant business ideas in 2020.

And by now you probably already know… one of the lowest cost (and most attainable) business ideas you can start working on right now is launching a blog of your own. For that reason, I recently put together a free guide that breaks down how to start a blog and I share the exact strategies I’ve used to turn my blog into a more than $50,000/mo business.

Disclosure: Please note that some of the links below are affiliate links and at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission. Know that I only recommend tools and learning resources I’ve personally used and believe are genuinely helpful, not because of the small commissions I make if you decide to purchase them. Most of all, I would never advocate for buying something that you can’t afford or that you’re not yet ready to implement.

The question I’m asked most (by far) when I speak with fellow entrepreneurs is, “How do I know which business ideas are best for me?” This is always quickly followed by, “How do I start on this side business idea while I’m still working my full-time job?”

This makes perfect sense. With how many business ideas already exist out in the world, it can be difficult to come up with the right side business idea you should be spending your time on.

With that in mind, I put together this comprehensive list of the 101 Best Side Business Ideas You Can Start While Working a Full-Time Job, to help give you inspiration with proven ideas that can be executed on while you still keep your day job—and primary source of income.

If I missed any good ones, please share your picks for the best business ideas in the comments below! Using your skills for profit is a common trend with all of the best side business ideas. If you’re an expert at something, there’s likely an audience of people online who would be willing to pay to become an expert in your field—just like you. If you want to take your skills and turn them into an online course that teaches others how to get the same results you’ve achieved in your life, career.

Drawing Ideas



Practice is a vital part of perfecting your drawing skills. Learning the basics and repeating them over and over again is the only way to improve. For proof, just check out what a few years of drawing practice can do. It’s truly incredible the progress that you can make by dedicating time to this pursuit. Those who do have gone from scrawling simple figure sketches to fully-rendered portraits in seemingly no time.

Although the best way to improve your drawing is to just get started, figuring out what to sketch can be challenging. Like all creative endeavors, everyone goes through “blocks” where they can’t figure out what to put pencil to paper. Well, have no fear! We’ve got a list of 75+ easy drawing ideas for you to try. They range from everyday objects to fantastical cityscapes—we recommend trying a variety in order to flex every bit of your drawing muscle.

Investing in great supplies will help ensure that you expand your sketching capabilities. So, check out our recommendations for the best drawing pencils and our guide for the best type of paper to use. And if you’re looking to add color to your work, we’ve identified some of the best colored pencils to use, too.

While there are seemingly endless cool drawing ideas floating around, some of the most popular subjects tend to be nature-themed or revolve around the human figure. Get acquainted with how to draw them with some of the step-by-step guides below. You never know—learning to draw them might spark even more drawing ideas!

How to draw a cat in two different ways — Whether you want to sketch countless tiny fur hairs or are looking to design the next Garfield, this guide will introduce you to basic cat anatomy and how to draw them in a realistic or stylized way.

A “handy” guide to drawing hands — Drawing human antomy is tricky, and the hands might be the most challenging body part of all. In this guide, we break down the internal structure of the hand and how you can articulate the bones and muscles under the skin. Follow these steps to bring your drawing to life.

Learn how to draw a rose — The rose is an enduring symbol of love. Just as writers have spoken of its beauty, artists draw its delicate petals. But just because the rose is popular doesn’t mean it’s easy to sketch. Loaded with layers of petals, it can be a challenge. But have no fear—we break a rose drawing down so that it’s both approachable and fun.

Interested in other blooms? Here’s how to draw a variety of flowers —There are so many types of botanicals in the world that it’s impossible to learn how to draw each one. But once you understand the basic structure of a flower, you can use that knowledge to sketch any botanical you like.

Software Project Ideas



Get a list of the latest software engineering project topics. This is a compiled list of innovative software project ideas waiting to be implemented. Browse through these new topics for software projects prepared and constantly updated by our team to provide new ideas to software engineering students. Many times students are confused about selecting their final year projects. It happens when students run out of ideas of which software project should we implement?

We are here to help you at this point, we update this page with innovative software based project ideas to be used by engineering students as their final year projects. This list of software engineering project topics is updated and reviewed to suit engineering university requirements. Find top software project ideas for diploma engineering as well as degree students for their final year.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location information .This system uses GPS to track the location of the vehicle. This system will track location of the vehicle and will send details about the location to the admin. This system helps admin to find out the location of the driver driving the vehicle. Admin will know which driver is in which location. This system can be implemented in call taxi to find out the location of the driver driving the vehicle and will help the admin to allocate taxi to the customer. User login to the system using his user id and password.

System will track the user’s location with the help of GPS and will send this detail to admin. Admin will access the system using his admin ID and password and will view the location of the driver driving the vehicle based on these details he will perform various operations. This application helps the admin to find the location of various drivers. He can keep record of the driver’s attendance that will help him to calculate salary of the driver very easily. Driver cannot do any type of cheating otherwise admin can easily find out using this system.

Modern day-to-day life of people in major cities is very demanding and the schedules are equally hectic. In such times, it is practically impossible to keep a track of all the activities/ appointments. Many a times, it happens that we may miss an important task; for example: taking medicines, attending a meeting, returning library books, paying the bills etc. And this cycle can keep going on endlessly. The human mind is not designed to multitask, it needs to work things out one at a time. This requires us to maintain our focus on the task at hand, and as a result other important things take a backstage and some may even slip out of our minds.

In order to address this problem, we have come up with a Weekly Task Alerting System. This system is designed to alert the user of all the important tasks that are due on a specific day, every week. So now, the user can carry on with his/her life without any worries. The developed project is a tasks reminder app, with AI-powered Chatbot that will make user enjoy productivity. Whether your goal is to make good habits or get rid of bad ones. This application helps you to make sure that the tasks you set actually get done, with the help of its AI assistant.

It monitors your android phone, pings you at times you’re likely to see a notification and makes sure you don’t forget about items on your to-do list. With this, which is one of the bot characters, this app brings you not only your tasks reminder but also a free productivity assistant that engages you throughout the day to create a more productive version of yourself.

Online Mobile Recharge Portal Project



Online Mobile Recharge is a web-based application developed in ASP.NET to recharge mobile phones. The project focuses at providing an easy and reliable platform to recharge mobile of any telecommunication company through online without buying recharge card. The registered users of the system can recharge their prepaid mobile phones from anywhere at any time.The proposed project for recharging mobiles developed to automate the mobile recharging process.

It roots out the manual card system of recharge and introduces a new and genuine online recharge process.The online mobile recharge system is beneficial to both the admins and users. Using the online application, the admin can add new operators, tariff plans, offers and update or modify the existing tariff plans. It helps the users in creating their account, and then recharging the mobiles phones at any time.

Here we propose an advanced Sentiment Analysis for Product Rating system that detects hidden sentiments in comments and rates the product accordingly. The system uses sentiment analysis methodology in order to achieve desired functionality. This project is an E-Commerce web application where the registered user will view the product and product features and will comment about the product. System will analyze the comments of various users and will rank product. We use a database of sentiment based keywords along with positivity or negativity weight in database and then based on these sentiment keywords mined in user comment is ranked.

Comment will be analyzed by comparing the comment with the keywords stored in database. The System takes comments of various users, based on the comment, system will specify whether the product is good, bad, or worst. Once user login the system he can view the product and product features. After viewing product user can comment about the product. User can also view comment of other user’s. The role of the admin is to add product to the system and to add keywords in database. User can easily find out correct product for his usage. This application also works as an advertisement which makes many people aware about the product. This system is also useful for the user’s who need review about a product.

Fingerprint Based Voting Project is a application where the user is recognized by his finger pattern. Since the finger pattern of each human being is different, the voter can be easily authenticated. The system allow the voter to vote through his fingerprint. Finger print is used to uniquely identify the user. The finger print minutiae features are different for each human being. Finger print is used as a authentication of the voters. Voter can vote the candidate only once, the system will not allow the candidate to vote for the second time. The system will allow admin to add the candidate name and candidate photo who are nominated for the election. Admin only has the right to add candidate name and photo who are nominated. Admin will register the voters name by verifying voter.

Admin will authenticate the user by verifying the user’s identity proof and then admin will register the voter. The number of candidate added to the system by the admin will be automatically deleted after the completion of the election. Admin has to add the date when the election going to end. Once the user has got the user id and password from the admin the user can login and vote for the candidate who are nominated. The system will allow the user to vote for only one candidate. The system will allow the user to vote for one time for a particular election. Admin can add any number of candidates when the new election will be announced. Admin can view the election result by using the election id. Even user can view the election result.

Opinion Mining For Social Networking Site



This system uses opinion mining methodology in order to achieve desired functionality. Opinion Mining for Social Networking Site is a web application. Here the user will post his views related to some subject other users will view this post and will comment on this post. The System takes comments of various users, based on the opinion, system will specify whether the posted topic is good, bad, or worst. User can change his own profile picture and can update his status. These changes can be viewed by various users.

We use a database of sentiment based keywords along with positivity or negativity weight in database and then based on these sentiment keywords mined in user comment is ranked. Once the user logins to the system, user can view his own status as well as he can view the topics posted by other users. When the user clicks on a particular topic user can give his own comment about the topic. System will use database and will match the comment with the keywords in database and will rank the topic. User can edit his own profile and can change his profile picture.

The role of the admin is to add post and adds keywords in database. This application can be used by users who like to post view about some events that is already held, or can post about the events that is going to be held. This application also works as an advertisement which makes many people aware about the topic posted. This system is also useful for the user’s who need review about their new idea. This system is also useful for the user’s who need review about any particular event that is posted.

This project helps the users to make good decisions regarding buying or selling of valuable property. Prior to this online system this process involved a lot of travelling costs and searching time. Due to this system the user now does not have to travel much and can look for the property it is searching for, online according to its requirements. This system includes property details like Address, space measurement(sq ft), number of BHKs, Floor, Property Seller name and its contact number plus email-id. The user can search property depending on the area that it wants in, number of wash rooms, bedrooms, halls and kitchen.

The system contains an algorithm that calculates loan that the user can take plus 20%-30% cash that the user has to pay. This system allows the admin to enter details about any property that it is wishing for. The admin can even delete the property details. Thus this system eliminates cost to a great extent and also reduces searching time. With the help of this system the user can get the property details depending on its preferences. Thus this system also helps to maintain good relationship between the buyers and the sellers of the property.

User Web Access Records Mining For Business Intelligence



In this project we analyse how business intelligence on a website could be obtained from user’s access records instead of web logs of “hits”. User’s access records are captured by implementing a data mining algorithm on the website. User mostly browses those products in which he is interested. This system will capture user’s browsing pattern using data mining algorithm. This system is a web application where user can view various resources on the website. User will register their profile in an exchange of a password.

User will get user ID and password in order to access the system. Once the user login’s to the system user will gain access to certain resources on the website. The links to the resources on the website have been modified such that a record of information about the access would be recorded in the database when clicked. This way, data mining can be performed on a relatively clean set of access records about the users.

When user clicks on certain resources on the website his access records will be captured by the system this can be achieved with the help of data mining algorithm used in this system. By using this application, product based organization will get to know the demand for certain products. This system will help organization to target right consumers. This system will help product based firms to maintain good customer relationship. Hence, a good deal of business intelligence about the users’ behaviours, preferences and about the popularities of the resources (products) on the website can be gained.

We propose to develop an android application to aid in dispensary patient data management and viewing. The system is aimed to help doctors to enter as well as view patient history as well as other patient details. Our system is a standalone system that can be installed on doctor android phone to be used for further login. On installation the application allows a doctor to open application and enter the details of any patient that undertakes his service.

The application allows doctor to insert various data fields regarding a patient including patient name, disease, medication provided, date of arrival, cost etc. The system saves this patient related data in the android phone. The doctor may now view this data as and when needed. The doctor may check the details whenever needed. The application allows doctor to search patients by name as well as date.

The role of the admin is to add post and adds keywords in database. This application can be used by users who like to post view about some events that is already held, or can post about the events that is going to be held. This application also works as an advertisement which makes many people aware about the topic posted. This system is also useful for the user’s who need review about their new idea. This system is also useful for the user’s who need review about any particular event that is posted.

Employee Hourly Attendance By Barcode Scan



The proposed project is a system that keeps a track of employees’ attendance using barcode scanner. This concept set forth to automate the traditional attendance system of taking signature by using authentication technique. The traditional system requires a register maintained for manually signing the attendance by the employees which is time consuming. Hence this proposed project eliminates the need of maintaining attendance sheet.

The proposed system uses barcode method for authenticating employees with a unique barcode that represents their unique id. Every employee will have their attendance card. They have to scan their cards using barcode scanner and the system notes down their attendance as per date and time. System stores employee’s attendance details and generates brief report for admin as required. Such kind of application is very useful in organizations or corporations for taking daily attendance.

It has happened so many times that you have been waiting on railway station for someone to arrive and you don’t have any exact information about train timing and other stuff. So here we present to you a project on Railway Tracking and Arrival Time Prediction. Using this system user’s can get the information about train timing, and is it on time or not, and other information. In this, system will track the train timing at what time train departed from a particular station and pass these timing details to other station’s system where it will display the timing according to train departed from previous station. If system will find any delay in train due to signal it will automatically update the train timing in next station and will be displayed to viewers.

In this system there is an admin module, who enters the detail about trains and its timing and these details will be passed through internet server and is fetched by the system on other stations, and there is other system that shows train information to the viewers on platform. Second system will get all the information of all trains but will automatically select the data that refers to particular station and shows that information on screen. For example if an admin at Mumbai station enter information about Delhi station Chennai station system will not be effected, but Delhi Station system will show the information about train.

This system works like – when train is departed late from a station, admin will enter details about departure and its time, and this information goes in real time on internet server and retrieved on other system through internet server and shows the details on screen. Station masters on every station have a login wherein them may update train arrival time at their station when it arrives. This second System is installed on various locations on station for viewers to view the information. Admin will add information like train departed from station, expected arrival at destination, delay in the train schedule, etc. This project publishes real-time train schedule events to subscribing multiple client applications.

Online Diagnostic Lab Reporting System



The system is an online diagnostic lab manager application that brings up various diagnosis working online. Here patients are first allowed to register on the site and also login using registered details. Once registered with their address and contact details, the patients may now see a variety of tests conducted by the lab along with their costs. The system allows for CBC, Blood Glucose, KFT, LFT tests to be booked by patient.

The tests also consists of parameters like Hemoglobin, WBC, etc. Now the system allows users to book any test needed. After successful booking system calculates costs and allows users to pay online. After payment the patient test is booked and the lab may now collected samples from patients registered address. After successful testing the user now gets a notification of test result through an email. The system allows admin to attach a copy of the report into the system and automatically email it to intended patient.

Steganography is the technique of hiding private or sensitive information within something that appears to be nothing be a usual image. Steganography involves hiding Text so it appears that to be a normal image or other file. If a person views that object which has hidden information inside, he or she will have no idea that there is any secrete information. What steganography essentially does is exploit human perception, human senses are not trained to look for files that have information inside of them.

What this system does is, it lets user to send text as secrete message inside an image file, user uploads the image and enters the text to send secretly, and gives a key or a pass word to lock the text, what this key does is it encrypts the text, so that even if it is hacked by hacker he will not be able to read the text. You will need the key to decrypt the hidden text. User then sends the image and key to the receiver and receiver first opens the image, and then he enters the key or password for decryption of text, he then press decrypt key to get secret text of the sender. By using this method you can double ensure that your secret message is sent secretly without outside interference of hackers or crackers. If sender sends this image in public others will not know what is it, and it will be received by receiver.

Steganography is the technique of hiding private or sensitive information within something that appears to be nothing be a usual image. Steganography involves hiding Text so it appears that to be a normal image or other file. If a person views that object which has hidden information inside, he or she will have no idea that there is any secrete information. What steganography essentially does is exploit human perception, human senses are not trained to look for files that have information inside of them.

Online Herbs Shopping Project



This project helps the users in curing its disease by giving the list of fruits and herbs that the user should consume in order to get rid of its disease. The main purpose of this project is to help the user to easily search for herbs and fruits that will be good for the health of the user depending on any health issue or disease that he/she is suffering from. This system helps the user to reduce its searching time to a great extent by allowing the user to enter its health problem and search accordingly.

The admin can add fruits and herbs to the system and its information. This system also allows the user to view the selected fruit or the herb’s description which describes how the fruit or the herb will help to improve the user’s health. This system also allows the user to place order which will add the items to the user’s cart and make payment for the same. The system also includes a module in which the user can search for the hospitals depending on the name of the disease that it enters. Thus this system helps to cure the user’s disease to a great extent.

Getting a loan is a very tiring and complicated process in India. It may take weeks even months for loans to get approved and people have to visit the loan office again and again for document and verification. Here our proposed project automates the loan process from both, bankers as well as customers side. Here customers may see various loans provided along with rate of interest and required documents.

Here once the customer fills basic enquiry form, it reaches the bank server he gets a login id password.. The server administrator now can check it and select weather to go forward or reject the candidate. If he needs to go forward the banker may select to send customer to next stage. Now the customer gets stage 1 approval and needs to upload his scanned documents to the site through his login.

Once the documents are submitted they are cross verified at the server and reply is sent to server. The system server also gets the person location and his image secretly by tracking the computer through which he submits documents to the bank server needed for bank verification. The bank may now cross verify customer details and also request extra documents by sending online alerts to the customer email. The customer just needs to upload needed documents online and can also track loan status. He gets an sms once his loan has been approved confirming the process.

It has happened so many times that you have been waiting on airport for someone to arrive and you don’t have any exact information about flight timing and other stuff. So here we present to you a project on flight scheduler system. Using this system user’s can get the information about flight timing, and is it on time or not, and other information.

Automated College Timetable Generator



Most colleges have a number of different courses and each course has a number of subjects. Now there are limited faculties, each faculty teaching more than one subjects. So now the time table needed to schedule the faculty at provided time slots in such a way that their timings do not overlap and the time table schedule makes best use of all faculty subject demands. We use a genetic algorithm for this purpose. In our Timetable Generation algorithm we propose to utilize a timetable object. This object comprises of Classroom objects and the timetable for every them likewise a fitness score for the timetable. Fitness score relates to the quantity of crashes the timetable has regarding alternate calendars for different classes. Classroom object comprises of week objects.

Week objects comprise of Days. also Days comprises of Timeslots. Timeslot has an address in which a subject, student gathering going to the address and educator showing the subject is related Also further on discussing the imperatives, We have utilized composite configuration design, which make it well extendable to include or uproot as numerous obligations. In every obligation class the condition as determined in our inquiry is now checked between two timetable objects. On the off chance that condition is fulfilled i.e there is a crash is available then the score is augmented by one.

Java and dot net are two different but very useful technology when it comes to information technology. Both of them have different development platforms. Well for a study and integration of two major technologies together we propose a client server based communication application made by integrating JAVA with dotnet technology. Here we propose a dedicated client server based architecture that allows for chat as well as authoritative commands by the server over client application. We integrate the two technology and have a working communication between these two technologies.

We here propose to build the server application using JAVA and the client side application using Dotnet(C#) technology. Our system consists of the server as an authorities admin and client as a client application in Dotnet. The server has the right to start chat, enable disable client application as well as record the client pc screen as and when needed. Thus we integrate two major technologies in a live internet based client server application for robust live internet based communication.

The credit card fraud detection features uses user behavior and location scanning to check for unusual patterns. These patterns include user characteristics such as user spending patterns as well as usual user geographic locations to verify his identity. If any unusual pattern is detected, the system requires revivification. The system analyses user credit card data for various characteristics. These characteristics include user country, usual spending procedures. Based upon previous data of that user the system recognizes unusual patterns in the payment procedure.

RF Controlled Solar Panel Based Robotic Vehicle



RF controlled solar panel based robotic vehicle can be used for observing an area and can be used for security purposes. In this solar panel project, solar power-based robotic vehicle is integrated with 360-degree camera. This robotic vehicle movement can be controlled using RF technology for remote operation. This system uses push buttons at the transmitting end. With the help of these push buttons, the receiver is able to receive commands.

These commands that are sent are used to control the movement of the robot which gives instructions for either to move the robot forward, backward, left or right etc. It uses the Atmega 328 series of a microcontroller to achieve its desired operation. This robot car has a 360-degree camera that can be used as security surveillance and solar panel for charging the battery. The solar panel has an auto battery cut off system. The wireless camera will be streaming live on the android application.

Get the latest digital electronics projects ideas at NevonProjects. NevonProjects constantly researches on innovative electronics applications that can be implemented for real time applications. Find the most innovative digital electronics projects topics and ideas compiled by NevonProjects here.

Get the widest list of PIC microcontroller projects for your learning and research. Our list consists of a wide variety of PIC based projects for students, researchers and engineers. We constantly research on PIC projects and list innovative topics and ideas online for further pic development.

The name PIC was initially acronym to “Peripheral Interface Controller”. Although acronym remained same the name was later changed to “Programmable Intelligent Computer”. These PIC microcontrollers are mainly used by students hobbyists and educators due to their low cost, especially in the fields of electronics and robotics. The PIC microcontrollers are popular because of wide availability, low cost, ease of reprogramming with built-in EEPROM, a wide variety of information available online, a variety of pic programming tools, and community support for developing PIC based systems. Thus a lot of projects are also built based on PIC microcontrollers by students, engineers and researchers.

The first parts of the family were available in 1976; by 2013 the company had shipped more than twelve billion individual parts, used in a wide variety of embedded systems. Today, many engineering students and enthusiasts are showing lot of interest towards embedded systems projects in which PIC microcontrollers are used. Among all the microcontrollers, PIC along with 8051 were the most widely used varieties for quite a long time. PIC microcontroller is most prominent among non-industrial uses because of low cost. The popularity of PIC microcontollers led to increase in the number of PIC microcontroller projects development. NevonProjects provides a variety of pic microcontroller projects ideas and topics for study and learning research.

Advanced Footstep Power Generation System



Day by day, the population of the country is increasing and the requirement of the power is also increasing. At the same time the wastage of energy is also increasing in many ways. So, reforming this energy back to usable form is the major solution. In this footstep power generation project, we are generating power with the help of human’s footsteps; this power is then used to charge battery.

The power is stored in a battery that can be used to charge a mobile phone using RFID card. This system is powered by Atmega 328 microcontroller, it consists of Arduino IDE, RFID sensor, USB cable and LCD. When we power on the system, the system enters into registration mode.

We can register three users. Once all the user is entered in the system then the system asks to swipe the card and connect the charger. Initially all the user is given 5 minutes of charging time as default. When we swipe the card and if the user is authorised, the system turns on for charging and will charge the Mobile phone. If the user is un-authorised then the system will display as unauthorised user, just in case if the user wants to stop the charging in midway the user needs to swipe the card again.

As soon as the card is swiped again, the remaining time balance is displayed and the charging stops. In order to recharge a card, we need to press recharge button which is on the system, and then system will ask to swipe the card, once the user swipes the card, it adds more 5 minutes to the particular card of the user.

NevonProjects has the largest list of Rf as well as rfid based projects topics and ideas for engineers researchers and students. These rfid projects kits help you learn and build rfid based circuit systems in no time. These rf based projects are built by making effective use of the rf technology in various fields of life.

These project kits are provided to help individuals in their rf based research and studies. Rf technology is used in various applications at various industries. Our rfid based projects are built to demonstrate these concepts through our self learning electronics project kits. Browse through list of latest rfid based project topics and ideas to choose the project that suits you.

Get the widest variety of dtmf based project topics for remote cell phone based operations at NevonProjects. Our researchers constantly on various wireless technologies including DTMF to provide innovative ideas on projects. Our DTMF projects kits aim to promote development in DTMF technology by sharing DTMF technology.

These DTMF based electronics projects kits help engineers, students, researchers and enthusiasts learn and use DTMF technology through our kits. We keep researching on latest DTMF projects for you to learn every week. Browse through our list of dtmf based projects to choose your desired project.

Robot Controlled using Android Application



The snake contains twelve segments motivated by servo motors and joined with metal brackets. The servos are controlled by an Arduino Mega and powered by a 7.4-volt battery pack. The snake can be controlled by an android app using Bluetooth. The snake is also capable of autonomous movement. Such a robot can be constructed with many different types of servos and brackets. Each of the 12 segments consists of a servo motor, a C-bracket, a side bracket, a wire clip and a set of Lego wheels.

Two screw holes is to be drilled into the Lego wheel axle to permit it to be connected to the C-bracket. After all, 12 segments are connected, head and tail sections need to be added in order to accommodate the Arduino and batteries. To make them a side bracket and two long C-brackets connected.

The Arduino and therefore the 5AA battery holder are used that powers it into the tail section of the snake. The servos are powered by a separate supply, the 7.4-volt battery pack, goes into the head of the snake. On the receiver, the bottom pin is connected to the Arduino ground. The voltage pin is connected to a 5-volt pin from the Arduino.

Get final year electrical engineering projects for diploma, degree, Msc and other electrical branch students. Our site lists the latest and innovative electrical engineering project topics and ideas for students, researchers and engineers. Get final year core electrical as well as electronics and communication engineering projects details for study and research. Browse through our lists of final year projects ideas for electrical engineering.

We develop and research on final year projects for eee as well as electrical engineering branches so students get . Get electrical projects ideas and topics for diploma students as well as degree and msc students. Get latest final year projects topics and ideas for electrical engineering students only at nevonprojects.

Nevonprojects brings you the most innovative list of well compiled ece mini projects for electronics and electrical students with circuit diagram. Get mini projects for ece and eee students with circuit diagram for your study and research. We research and provide innovative mini projects topics for ece and eee research. Implement these top most innovative mini projects ideas for electronics and electrical engineering.

US Stocks Pare Gains



Wall Street erased early gains on Wednesday, with tech shares suffering a sharp sell-off fueled by anxieties over escalating US-China tensions. Bloomberg reported that Washington is considering sanctions action against China over Beijing's plans to impose a new security law on Hong Kong, while President Trump warned that the city could lose its status as a financial hub. Meanwhile, efforts to reopen the global economy and prospects of a coronavirus vaccine helped to lift sentiment.

Oil prices extended losses to fall near 5% on Wednesday, with the WTI around $33.7 a barrel and the Brent crude around $34.5 a barrel amid renewed demand and supply concerns. European stocks ended in the green on Wednesday, with the DAX 30 advancing 1.3% to 11,656, its highest closing level since March 5th. The European Commission proposed.

The Brazilian economy lost a record 860,503 thousand jobs in April 2020, after shedding 240,702 in the previous month, amid the coronavirus crisis. All sectors recorded job losses: services (-362,378), trade (-230,209), general industry (-195,968), construction (-66,942) and agriculture, forestry & fishing (-4,999). Across regions, the Southeast led the decrease (-450,707), followed by the South (-202,805), Northeast (-126,834), Midwest (-56,057) and North (-27,069).

Considering the first four months of the year, the economy shed 763,232 jobs. On April 1st the federal government unveiled the Emergency Employment and Income Program, helping to preserve more than 8.1 million jobs in the country, the Ministry of Economy said. It was the first release of 2020 data as the publication was halted due to companies' difficulties to provide accurate and up-to-date information.

The Manufacturing Activity Index in the US fifth district including the District of Columbia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and most of West Virginia increased to -27 in May of 2020 from a record low of -53 in April. Still, the index remains at 2009-lows as COVID-19 pandemic forced many factories to halt the production. All three components – shipments (-26 from -70), new orders (-35 from -61) and employment (-16 from -21) - were above their April readings but still in contractionary territory. Meanwhile, the index for local business conditions was also negative, but contacts expected conditions to improve in the next six months.

Italy's 10-year government bond yield fell for a third day on Wednesday to 1.48%, its lowest on a closing basis since March 27th, amid expectations that EUR 173 billion from the EUR 750 billion EU recovery fund will be delivered to Italy, one of the most affected countries by the coronavirus epidemic. EUR 82 billion is expected to be financed by grants while EUR 91 billion by loans.